LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS: MERCURY TO SHUTTLE


MERCURY PROGRAM:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psi. O2 storage as compressed gas.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidity Control - Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX)

Water - Supply stored in bladder tank. Disinfection by residual chlorine. Waste water vented overboard.


GEMINI PROGRAM:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psi. Supercritical Cryogenic O2 storage.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidity Control - CHX

Water - Supply stored in bladder tank. Disinfection by addition of hypochlorite. Waste water vented overboard.


APOLLO COMMAND MODULE:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psi. Supercritical Cryogenic O2 storage.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidity Control - CHX

Water - Produced by fuel cells. Waste water stored or sent to evaporators (cooling), excess vented.


APOLLO LUNAR MODULE:

Oxygen - 100% O2 cabin pressure 5 psi. O2 storage as compressed gas and supercritical cryogenic fluid.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidity Control - Water circulation through pressure suit.

Water - Pre-filled pressurized bladder supply tanks. Disinfection from iodine residual. Waste water stored.


SKYLAB:

Oxygen - 72% O2 / 28% N2 with cabin pressure at 5 psi. N2 and O2 storage as compressed gases.

Carbon Dioxide Control - Vacuum regenerable Molecular Sieve 5A/Molecular Sieve 13X beds.

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon

Temperature and Humidity Control - CHX

Water - Pre-filled pressurized supply tanks. Iodine added as disinfectant on orbit. Waste water stored, with excess vented.


SHUTTLE ORBITER:

Oxygen - 21.7% O2 / 78.3% N2 with cabin pressure at 14.7 psi. N2 and O2 storage as compressed gases. O2 also stored as supercritical cryogenic fluid.

Carbon Dioxide Control - LiOH, Regenerable Solid Amines in EDO configuration.

Trace Contaminant Control - Activated Carbon. Carbon monoxide oxidized to CO2 using Ambient Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer (ATCO)

Temperature and Humidity Control - CHX

Water - Produced by fuel cells. Disinfection via flow-through Microbial Check Valve (MCV). Waste water stored, with excess vented overboard.


RELATED SITES:

 


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Author: Tugrul Sezen
sezen@nas.nasa.gov

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